Contaminants may include pathogens, organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, chlorine, chloramine, and suspended solids. Biological pathogens may include cysts such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium and bacteria. Organic chemicals are predominantly chlorination by products. Inorganic chemicals can be naturally occuring mineral salts and synthetic salts used for municipal water processing. Suspended soilids may rise after heavy rain.
Treatment solutions may include coarse filtration, sub micron filtration, organic reduction, inorganic reduction and disinfection.
Typically applied technologies include:
Coarse filtration - backwashing multimedia filter and bag filter or cartridge filter
Sub micron filtration - self cleaning ultrafilter
Organic reduction - activated carbon, anion resin
Inorganic reduction - reverse osmosis
Disinfection – chlorine, ozone, ultraviolet irradiation